List of references on the benefits of journaling

A person writes in their journal.

The benefits of journaling have been scientifically proven to:

  • Improve physical health and mental well-being
  • Diminish symptoms of depression, anxiety, panic, substance abuse, PTSD, asthma, arthritis, and many other health conditions and disorders
  • Improve cognitive functioning
  • Make therapy more effective
  • Strengthen the immune system, preventing a host of illnesses
  • Counteract many of the negative effects of stress
  • Finally, journaling is for everyone. It just “feels good” to write

From “Why journaling works”

List of references

Baikie, K. A., & Wilhelm, K. (2005). Emotional and physical Health benefits of expressive writing. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 11, 338–346.

Cameron, L. D., & Nicholls, G. (1998) Expression of stressful experiences through writing: Effects of a self-regulation manipulation for pessimists and optimists. Health Psychology, 17, 84–92.

Christensen, A.J., Edwards, D.L., Wiebe, J.S., Benotsch, E.G., McKelvey, L., Andrews, M., & Lubaroff, D.M. (1996).

Effect of verbal self-disclosure on natural killer cell activity: Moderation influence on cynical hostility. Psychosomatic Medicine. 58. 150-155 Davidson, K., Schwartz, A. R., Sheffield, D., et al (2002) Expressive writing and blood pressure. In The Writing Cure: How Expressive Writing Promotes Health and Emotional Well-being (eds S. J. Lepore & J. M. Smyth), pp.

17–30. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Earnhardt, J. L., Martz, D. M., Ballard, M. E., et al (2002) A writing intervention for negative body image: Pennebaker fails to surpass the placebo. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 17, 19–35.

Francis, M. E., & Pennebaker, J. W. (1992) Putting stress into words. The impact of writing on physiological, absentee, and self-reported emotional well-being measures. American Journal of Health Promotion, 6, 280–287.

Gallant, M. D., & Lafreniere, K. D. (2003) Effects of an emotional disclosure writing task on the physical and psychological functioning of children of alcoholics.

Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 21, 55–66.

Greenberg, M. A., Wortman, C. B. & Stone, A. A. (1996) Emotional expression and physical heath. Revising traumatic memories or fostering self-regulation? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 588–602.

Hockemeyer, J. R., Smyth, J. M., Anderson, C. F., et al (1999) Is it safe to write? Evaluating the short-term distress produced by writing about emotionally traumatic experiences [abstract]. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 99.

King, L. A. & Miner, K. N. (2000) Writing about the perceived benefits of traumatic events: implications for physical health. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 220– 230.

Klein, K. & Boals, A. (2001) Expressive writing can increase working memory capacity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 520–533.

Kovac, S. H. & Range, L. M. (2002) Does writing about suicidal thoughts and feelings reduce them? Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 32, 428–440.

Lepore, S. J. (1997) Expressive writing moderates the relation between intrusive thoughts and depressive symptoms.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1030–1037.

Lepore, S. J. & Greenberg, M. A. (2002) Mending broken hearts: Effects of expressive writing on mood, cognitive processing, social adjustment and health following a relationship breakup.

Psychology and Health, 17, 547–560.

Lepore, S. J. & Smyth, J. M. (eds) (2002) The Writing Cure: How Expressive Writing Promotes Health and Emotional Well-being. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Norman, S. A., Lumley, M. A., Dooley, J. A., et al (2004) For whom does it work? Moderators of the effects of written emotional disclosure in a randomized trial among women with chronic pelvic pain. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 174– 183.

Páez, D., Velasco, C. & Gonzalez, J. L. (1999) Expressive writing and the role of alexythimia as a dispositional deficit in self-disclosure and psychological health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 630–641.

Park, C. L. & Blumberg, C. J. (2002) Disclosing trauma through writing: testing the meaning-making hypothesis.

Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 597–616.

Pennebaker, J. W. (1997b) Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process. Psychological Science, 8, 162–166.

Pennebaker, J. W. & Francis, M. E. (1996) Cognitive, emotional, and language processes in disclosure. Cognition and Emotion, 10, 601–626.

Pennebaker, J. W. & Graybeal, A. (2001) Patterns of natural language use. Disclosure, personality, and social integration. Current Directions, 10, 90–93.

Petrie, K. J., Fontanilla, I., Thomas, M. G., et al (2004) Effect of written emotional expression on immune function in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection.

A randomized trial. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 272–275.

Schwartz, L. & Drotar, D. (2004) Effects of written emotional disclosure on caregivers of children and adolescents with chronic illness. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 29, 105–118.

Scott, V. B., Robare, R. D., Raines, D. B., et al (2003) Emotive writing moderates the relationship between mood awareness and athletic performance in collegiate tennis players. North American Journal of Psychology, 5, 311–324.

Sloan, D. M. & Marx, B. P. (2004a) A closer examination of the structured written disclosure procedure. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 165–175.

Smyth, J. M. (1998) Written emotional expression. Effect sizes, outcome types, and moderating variables. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 174–184.

Smyth, J. M., Hockemeyer, J. R., Anderson, C., et al (2002) Structured writing about a natural disaster buffers the effect of intrusive thoughts on negative affect and physical symptoms. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Traumatic Studies, 1. issues/2002-1/smyth.htm Spera, S. P., Buhrfeind, E. D. & Pennebaker, J. W. (1994) Expressive writing and coping with job loss. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 722–733.

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